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Deep Learning from Incomplete Data: Detecting Imminent Risk of Hospital-acquired Pneumonia in ICU Patients.
Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the second most common nosocomial infection in the ICU and costs an estimated $3.1 billion annually. The ability to predict HAP could improve patient outcomes and reduce costs. Traditional pneumonia risk prediction models rely on a small number of hand-chosen signs and symptoms and have been shown to poorly discriminate between low and high risk individuals. Consequently, we wanted to investigate whether modern data-driven techniques applied to respective pneumonia cohorts could provide more robust and discriminative prognostication of pneumonia risk. In this paper we present a deep learning system for predicting imminent pneumonia risk one or more days into the future using clinical observations documented in ICU notes for an at-risk population (n = 1, 467). We show how the system can be trained without direct supervision or feature engineering from sparse, noisy, and limited data to predict future pneumonia risk with 96% Sensitivity, 72% AUC, and 80% F 1-measure, outperforming SVM approaches using the same features by 20% Accuracy (relative; 12% absolute).