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Abstract

Improved Semantic Segmentation of Tuberculosis-Consistent Findings in Chest X-rays Using Augmented Training of Modality-Specific U-Net Models with Weak Localizations.


Rajaraman S, Folio LR, Dimperio J, Alderson PO, Antani SK

Diagnostics (Basel). 2021 Mar 30;11(4):616. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics11040616.

Abstract:

Deep learning (DL) has drawn tremendous attention for object localization and recognition in both natural and medical images. U-Net segmentation models have demonstrated superior performance compared to conventional hand-crafted feature-based methods. Medical image modality-specific DL models are better at transferring domain knowledge to a relevant target task than those pretrained on stock photography images. This character helps improve model adaptation, generalization, and class-specific region of interest (ROI) localization. In this study, we train chest X-ray (CXR) modality-specific U-Nets and other state-of-the-art U-Net models for semantic segmentation of tuberculosis (TB)-consistent findings. Automated segmentation of such manifestations could help radiologists reduce errors and supplement decision-making while improving patient care and productivity. Our approach uses the publicly available TBX11K CXR dataset with weak TB annotations, typically provided as bounding boxes, to train a set of U-Net models. Next, we improve the results by augmenting the training data with weak localization, postprocessed into an ROI mask, from a DL classifier trained to classify CXRs as showing normal lungs or suspected TB manifestations. Test data are individually derived from the TBX11K CXR training distribution and other cross-institutional collections, including the Shenzhen TB and Montgomery TB CXR datasets. We observe that our augmented training strategy helped the CXR modality-specific U-Net models achieve superior performance with test data derived from the TBX11K CXR training distribution and cross-institutional collections (p < 0.05). We believe that this is the first study to i) use CXR modality-specific U-Nets for semantic segmentation of TB-consistent ROIs and ii) evaluate the segmentation performance while augmenting the training data with weak TB-consistent localizations.


Rajaraman S, Folio LR, Dimperio J, Alderson PO, Antani SK Improved Semantic Segmentation of Tuberculosis-Consistent Findings in Chest X-rays Using Augmented Training of Modality-Specific U-Net Models with Weak Localizations. 
Diagnostics (Basel). 2021 Mar 30;11(4):616. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics11040616.

PMID