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Clinical Vocabulary Standards

Multiple projects in this area continue to promote the development, enhancement, and adoption of clinical vocabulary standards. Inter-terminology mapping promotes the use of standard terminologies by creating maps to administrative terminologies, which allows re-use of encoded clinical data.

  • CORE Subset of SNOMED CT: The CORE Problem List Subset is derived from real clinical data from eight large-scale healthcare institutions. It identifies the most frequently used SNOMED CT terms in the problem list.
  • Newborn Screening, Coding, & Terminology Guide: The NLM Newborn Screening Coding and Terminology Guide and HRSA/NLM Guidance for Exchanging Electronic Newborn Screening Orders and Results Web site facilitates the use of electronic health data standards (LOINC, SNOMED CT, UCUM, and HL7) in recording and transmitting newborn screening test results. The Guide includes standard codes and terminology for newborn tests and conditions.
  • RxNav: RxNav is an interface to the RxNorm database, designed for displaying relations among drug entities. In addition to the browser, we created SOAP-based and RESTful application programming interfaces (APIs) enabling users to integrate RxNorm in their applications.
  • RxTerms: RxTerms is a drug interface terminology derived from RxNorm for prescription writing or medication history recording (e.g. in e-prescribing systems, PHRs). The advantages of RxTerms are: Free to use. Directly links to RxNorm, the U.S. drug terminology standard, and facilitates inclusion of RxNorm identifiers in electronic health records. Efficient data entry - RxTerms separates the full names in RxNorm into two parts: drug name + route.
  • Top LOINC Laboratory Codes – Orders and Observations: This list is for laboratories, practices, researchers, and others who wish to map their laboratory test codes to universal LOINC codes.


Publications/Tools: 
Tang P, McDonald CJ. Computer-Based Patient-Record Systems - Chapter 9. In Shortliffe E, Perreault L, eds. Medical Informatics. New York: springer. 2001:327-358. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-21721-5_9.
McDonald CJ. FHIR Overview Presentation by Clement J. McDonald, MD
McDonald CJ. Top LOINC Codes – Orders and Observations
Abhyankar S, Schluter P, Bennett K, Vreeman D, McDonald CJ. Enabling Interoperability between Healthcare Devices and EHR Systems. In 2017 AMIA Symposium. Wasington DC: IEEE.
McDonald CJ, Vreeman D, Wang K, Carr C, Colins B, Abhyankar S, Deckard J, Rubin D, Langlotz C. The LOINC/RSNA Radiology Playbook: A unified terminology for radiology procedures. . In 2017 AMIA Symposium. Washington DC.
Abhyankar S, Vreeman DJ, Westra BL, Delaney CW. Comments on the Use of LOINC and SNOMED CT for Representing Nursing Data [Letter]. Int J Nurs Knowl. 2017 Aug 30. doi: 10.1111/2047-3095.12183. [Epub ahead of print]
Vreeman DJ, Abhyankar S, McDonald CJ. Re: Unit conversions between LOINC codes Published June 19, 2017 [Letter]. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2017 Aug 23. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocx087. [Epub ahead of print]
Cui L, Zhu W, Tao S, Case JT, Bodenreider O, Zhang GQ. Mining non-lattice subgraphs for detecting missing hierarchical relations and concepts in SNOMED CT. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2017 Jul 1;24(4):788-798. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocw175.
Vreeman DJ, Abhyankar S, McDonald CJ. Unit conversions between LOINC codes Published June 19, 2017 [Letter]. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 1–3. http://doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocx087.
Bush R, Heierman E, Knafel A, Lardin L, McDonald CJ. LIVD – Digital Format for Publication of LOINC to Vendor IVD Test Results. . IVD Industry Connectivity Consortium. http://ivdconnectivity.org/livd/. Published June 1, 2017. Accessed August 9, 2017.

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