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Health Information Standards

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LHC plays a significant role in the dissemination of NLM terminology products, such as RxNorm, through its RxNav and RxTerms projects, both of which have expanded the scope and audience of RxNorm. LHC staff are involved with standards development activities, especially with HL7 standards. More recently, LHC staff have developed formal specifications and implementation guides for FHIR (Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources) related to the exchange, integration, sharing and retrieval of electronic health information in several areas. Finally, LHC staff are investigating how Common Data Elements (CDEs) are used in practice and how they can be annotated with standard healthcare terminologies.


LHNCBC cherry blossoms


LHC-Forms is a web widget that renders input forms based on JSON form definitions.

Medical Ontology Research

The LHNCBC Medical Ontology Research project encompasses basic research on biomedical terminologies and ontologies and their applications to natural language processing, clinical decision support, translational medicine, data integration and interoperability.

Detail of baby toes.

Newborn Screening Coding and Terminology Guide

Newborn screening (NBS) in the United States is a complex public health program. The goals of NBS are to identify infants who appear healthy but have serious conditions, begin treatment before they suffer significant disability or death, and in doing so decrease the burden of disease on society.

Detail of several medication tablets


RxNav is an interface to the RxNorm database, designed for displaying relations among drug entities. In addition to the browser, we created SOAP-based and RESTful application programming interfaces (APIs) enabling users to integrate RxNorm in their applications.


RxTerms is a drug interface terminology derived from RxNorm for prescription writing or medication history recording (e.g. in e-prescribing systems, PHRs). The advantages of RxTerms: free to use; directly links to RxNorm, facilitating inclusion of RxNorm identifiers in electronic health records; and efficient data entry.

SNOMED CT thumbnail image

SNOMED CT: CORE Problem List Subset and Rule-Based Maps

SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms) is an extensive clinical terminology that was formed by the merger, expansion, and restructuring of SNOMED RT (Reference Terminology) and the United Kingdom National Health Service Clinical Terms. It is the most comprehensive clinical vocabulary available in English.

Top LOINC Codes – Orders and Observations

LHNCBC, in cooperation with Regenstrief Institute, obtained and analyzed statistical data from many health care organizations to identify the most frequent subset that organizations could target for mapping. It obtained frequency distribution for three years of laboratory tests sources, including from Partners of Boston and the Indiana Network for Patient Care (an HIE), and United Healthcare, all of whom had mapped the test results to LOINC. The sample size of the combined sources was 490 million test results.